A Case For Bilingual Education | Education

According to a 2006 report by the Parliamentary Assembly Committee on Culture, Science and Education in France, “[B]ilingual education based on the mother tongue is the basis for long-term success.” Citing many of the known and accepted benefits of bilingualism and biliteracy, the Committee makes the case that bilingual education should be supported whenever possible, to help minorities retain their native language – and moreover increase their potential for higher levels of academic achievement in the process.Concerns that children who grow up with two languages will either fall behind academically because of it, or are at risk of not mastering either language well, have largely been disproved by research, the committee stated.”The language which is the vehicle of instruction has a crucial role in that command of it is the key to classroom communication and consequently to pupils’ acquisition of knowledge. A great deal of research has confirmed that types of education based on the mother tongue significantly increase the chances of educational success and give better results,” they concluded in their report.What is Bilingual Education?Bilingual education programs teach speakers of other languages academic subjects in their native language while gradually transitioning them into English-only classrooms. The majority of these programs in America teach to native speakers of Spanish, Chinese, or Navajo. Bilingual education is different from ESL because ESL programs are meant only to teach speakers of other languages English, while bilingual education programs are meant to encourage further retention and development of the native language while teaching English, enabling the child to develop fluent bilingualism and biliteracy.What are the benefits of Bilingual Education?Bilingual education teachers generally transition students from the bilingual classroom to the English mainstream classroom over a period of 1-6 years. This can be beneficial for one because it allows the students to continue their own academic advancement while learning the dominant language, whereas students who must learn a language and other academic subjects in that language often fall behind. By teaching children academic subjects in their native language while acquiring English, the students learn the language while continuing to progress academically. Furthermore, they become fluent and literate in both languages.Studies have shown that quality bilingual education can be an effective approach for teaching second language learners. Successful programs have found that developing and maintaining the student’s native language does not interfere with English language acquisition, but instead enhance it.The advantages of bilingualism are not highly debated. Some of the advantages plurilinguals have, cited by the Parliamentary Assembly, include:• An enhanced faculty for creative thinking• More advanced analytical skills and cognitive control of linguistic operations• Greater communicative sensitivity in relation to situational factors• Improved spatial perception, cognitive clarity and analytical skillsFurthermore, bilingual programs encourage the preservation of a minority group’s linguistic and cultural heritage. Children who are put into English-only schools from a young age will greatly lose their mother tongue and culture unless it is taught and frequently spoken at home – however it is all too common for second and third generation Americans to lose their heritage language.If the benefits of bilingualism are not highly disputed, why is bilingual education highly disputed?Common arguments and sentiments against bilingual education in America include the following:ImmersionThe argument is that if a person is not totally immersed in the new language, they will not learn it – that immigrant children should be totally immersed in the language and therefore be taught entirely in English right away, instead of learning gradually, because they will not learn as well with a gradual approach. Critics of bilingual education often believe that retaining and developing the first language inhibits the child’s ability to learn English. However, bilingual education supporters maintain that retaining the first language will facilitate learning in the second. Opportunities for immersion, moreover, are all around, whereas quality bilingual education opportunities are not.Insufficient mastery of the English languageSome express doubts about the success of bilingual programs in teaching language-minority students mastery of the English language, citing low test scores and poor reading skills in both English and the native language as a result of the programs. However, low scores can be attributed to the child’s social context more than to the effectiveness of bilingual education, according to the 2006 report by the Parliamentary Assembly.Furthermore, according to a 1987 study commission by the California Association for Bilingual Education (CABE), children in “properly designed” bilingual education programs learn English quickly and meet grade-level standards in English and mathematics in three to five years. The report used data collected from 25 schools in seven California districts to dispute the claim that bilingual programs slow the acquisition of English and keep children out of the mainstream longer.BiasSpanish as well as other minority languages have not historically been valued as highly as they should be due to prejudice and xenophobia. One and two generations back it was not acceptable for immigrants or natives to speak a language other than English in school, and parents did not teach their children for fear they would not excel or that it would hold them back. This prejudice still haunts us today.FearIn 2010 Tucson Unified School District (TUSD) banned Mexican heritage and cultural study in their high schools. They claimed that the courses were teaching Mexican-American children to resent white Americans and encouraging them to want to overthrow the US government. Although the school was seeing rises in academic achievement, the program was teaching minority students about their culture and not the mainstream one, and so the programs were cut. This closely mimics the battle bilingual programs have faced in America as well.Insufficient research
Moreover, it does not help that research on bilingual education presents its own set of problems. “Research on the effectiveness of bilingual education remains in dispute, because program evaluation studies – featuring appropriate comparison groups and random assignment of subjects or controls for pre-existing differences – are extremely difficult to design,” wrote James Crawford, researcher on bilingual education. Crawford, however, maintains that there is strong empirical support that native-language instruction does not inhibit or slow the acquisition of English, and that well-developed skills in the native language are associated with high levels of academic achievement.A 1997 press release from a committee of the National Research Council formed perhaps a more well-rounded conclusion. They stated that political debates over how to teach children with limited English skills have hampered bilingual education research and evaluation efforts. The committee recommended that research focus on identifying a variety of educational approaches that work for children in their communities based on local need and available resources. And indeed this availability of resources can be a major concern when talking about constructing quality bilingual programs, as well as the scarcity and demand for quality bilingual teachers.”In recent years, studies quickly have become politicized by advocacy groups selectively promoting research findings to support their positions,” said Kenji Hakuta, committee chair and professor of education at Stanford University. “Rather than choosing a one-size-fits-all program, the key issue should be identifying those components, backed by solid research findings, that will work in a specific community.”If bilingualism has an educational advantage, why don’t our schools support this advantage?Another often disregarded advantage of bilingual education in America is that native English-speaking children can enroll and acquire a second language. America is known for being one of the least dual-tri lingual countries in the world, with a bias toward English-only, while most other countries in the world teach many languages from a young age. The interesting thing is that most Americans would recognize the benefits of speaking two or more languages, although bilingual education remains a highly debated topic.Bilingual education programs have the potential to help encourage and support plurilingualism in America and ultimately improve our nation academically.”The view that bilingualism or plurilingualism is a burden on pupils is… incorrect – they are assets,” the 2006 Parliamentary Assembly Committee reported. “‘Strong’ bilingual educational models which aim to equip the future adult with real bi/plurilingual proficiency and, in particular, bi-literacy, have many advantages over ‘weak’ models which treat bilingualism as an intermediate stage between mother-tongue monolingualism and official-language monolingualism rather than as an end in itself.”

Goat Keeping – Raising Livestock For Business With a Shoestring Budget | livestock

If you’re thinking of going into raising livestock for business but is stymied by a shoestring budget, the answer to your problem is goat keeping.Goats have been serving our needs as early as 10,000 B.C., probably even before we have learned to domesticate cows and sheep. Because of their capability to survive on the most meager of herbs, bushes and scrubs, they are also ideal agricultural animals for countries with arid environments like those in Africa. Goat keeping is also a chief source of food and income in mountainous regions like Tibet and Mongolia. This trait also makes them attractive to farmers from Third World countries because of their relative cost-effectiveness. In fact, certain charities and organizations donate herds of goats to poor communities in order to provide them with livelihood.Despite its scruffy appearance, the goat yields various products for consumption. Asides from being a good source of meat when keeping goats, its milk can be converted to yoghurt and cheese. If you are unfortunate enough to have cow’s milk as allergens, you can find a great alternative in goat’s milk. Certain breeds like the Angora yield thick strands of hair called mohair which can be used for the creation of textiles. There are however, shorter hairs found nearer to the skin of the animal which are common in Cashmere and Pashmina goats. Producing textiles out of these will give you more profit.There are many dimensions in goat keeping. First, you must identify the needs of your chief buyers. These needs will dictate which breed you will get as each one boasts different strengths on the areas of meat, milk, and hair. Therefore you will not use a goat of LaMancha stock to produce hair when Angoras are the more efficient breed for that. In the same respect, the former produces more milk than the latter which is why the LaMancha is ideal for dairy operations.Being able to tell prime animals from inferior ones will help you during purchases and at instances when you decide to thin your herd of unproductive specimens. Knowledge of goat biology and habits will also be helpful in understanding their needs like the right feed to give and the physical signals which tell you the appropriate time to mate your buck with the does.With these things in mind, you’re ready to start the journey to goat keeping. At this very moment, your very first animal is possibly already out there, chewing its cud, waiting for you to start your venture.

Real Estate License Required | Real estate

Looking for a very lucrative business opportunity? Real estate brokering is the top choice for a lot of people. Real Estate Brokers and real estate agents are working throughout the nation. Not only are they making excellent incomes, they are also contributing to the economy in direct, as well as, indirect ways. By helping the sellers in selling their property and at the same time helping the buyers in buying a property these agents help satisfy their need for shelter. Creating this transaction often entails many other services to be ordered. So, can anyone start real estate brokering? Well, not really.Possessing a Real estate license is a pre-requisite for becoming a real estate agent. However, obtaining a real estate license is not difficult. In most states, the qualifications for getting a real estate license are very minimal. So you should first check the eligibility criteria for obtaining a real estate license (rather pre-license) in your state. The real estate license eligibility criterion includes things like the minimum age limit (which is mostly 19 years) and educational qualifications (which is mostly high school). Most states do require a clean criminal record, sorry. Once you know that you satisfy those real estate license (pre-license) eligibility criteria, you can go ahead and enroll for a pre-license training.There a number of real estate schools that offer real estate license training. Some real estate schools offer online training for a real estate license. Choose a course that is spread over a sufficient duration of time e.g. 1 year so that you are able to grasp the concepts properly (after all you want to become a successful real estate agent and not just another real estate agent). You will be taught a number of topics as part of your real estate license training. All this will help you develop a basic understanding of real estate and various aspects related to real estate (e.g. real estate law, deeds, contracts, ownership transfer, etc)Once you have undergone this real estate license training, you will be required to undergo a state exam. After you pass this exam, you will generally need to undergo additional training on state approved courses. That’s it, you can now get a real estate license which is worth that effort (as you will find in a couple of years of starting real state brokering). Most states also require you to go for continuous education after you have received your real estate license. However, this is a just a few hours every few years.So a real estate license is what you need to start your career as a real estate agent. But your success after that will be dependent on how seriously, ethically and effectively you carry out your job. Unfortunately, eighty percent of new agents will have left the business within five years. Remember, this is a very competitive business and you will find that the top twenty percent of agents earn nearly eighty per cent of the money. Being average in the sales business will leave you hurting financially.